This working paper is part of the larger World Resources Report Towards a More Equal City, which views sustainability as composed of three interrelated issues: the economy, the environment, and equity. It is concerned with the challenge of expanding access to energy in the growing cities of the global South. More specifically, it asks, How can cities in the global South provide cleaner, more affordable, and more reliable energy services to the under-served while achieving economic prosperity and safeguarding environmental quality?
This working paper by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) considers how renewables and energy efficiency can work together to contribute to global energy decarbonisation by 2050. It also looks and how this synergy affects energy system and technology cost, and the effect it has on air pollution and avoidance of adverse health effects caused by these pollutants. The paper looks in detail at the five largest energy users – China, Germany, India, Japan and the United States – up to 2030. Together, these five countries represent two-thirds of the G20’s primary energy supply and around half of global energy demand. IRENA’s working paper proposes actions to strengthen synergies as a step towards a sustainable and affordable energy future. The annex provides in-depth technical findings for the five countries. The paper also forms parts of IRENA’s global renewable energy roadmap analysis.
This strategy paper addresses the following main questions investigating the crucial role that District Heating and Cooling (DH&C) networks would play in the energy transition towards 2050: (1) How does DH&C develop while energy demands in buildings are decreasing?; (2) What is the role of DH&C in bringing renewable energy sources (RES) to high density city areas and villages?; and (3) How would DH&C solutions support the balance of demand and supply?