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Energy storage is important to allow flexibility in urban energy systems, enable increased utilization of renewable energy, avoid production from low-priority production facilities, and enable the reduction of peak production capacities in both electricity and thermal energy systems.

The two main types of energy storage are:

  • Electricity storage, including; Battery technologies, Hydrogen, Pumped Hydro, and Super Capacitors.
  • Thermal Energy Storage (TES), including; Sensible Thermal Energy Storage, Underground Thermal Energy Storage (UTES – Borehole, Aquifer, and Cavern/Pit), Phase Change Storage, TES via Chemical reactions, and smart building materials.

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